Scraper Python


With Python, you can create a simple scraping script in about 15 minutes and in under 100 lines of code. As we know, Python is an open source programming language. In this post, I will teach you how to scrape multiple web pages of a single website using Python. Scrapy has also an interactive mode called the Scrapy Shell. Hi, I am interested in gathering simple weather data using Beautiful Soup, but am having trouble understanding what I'm doing. These code samples are for the book Web Scraping with Python 2nd Edition. It is ideally designed for rapid prototyping of complex applications. Python Web Scraping With BeautifulSoup: A How To Guide On Web Scraping python web scraping, python scraping, python crawler, python beautifulsoup example, web scraping python beautifulsoup. This prompted me to turn Anna‘s basic Twitter scraper into a library. Related courses:. Python really makes the Web Scraping easy because of its easily understandable syntax and a large collection of Libraries. One that scrapes, especially a tool for scraping off paint or other adherent matter such as ice on a windshield. This Python Scrapy tutorial will teach you how to use Scrapy to build web crawlers and web spiders. How to speed up your python web scraper by using multiprocessing In earlier posts, here and here I discussed how to write a scraper and make it secure and foolproof. Precisely, I'll use two Python modules for scraping data:. It wasn't very straight forward as I expected so I've decided to write a tutorial for it. In a previous tutorial, I showed you how to use the Requests module to access webpages using Python. When we retrieve the data, we will have to extract it from HTML, for which we will use lxml (Beautiful Soup is a popular alternative). First web scraper¶. Python Web Scraping - Introduction - Web scraping is an automatic process of extracting information from web. As you can see, once we’ve imported docx2txt, all we need is one line of code to read in the text from the Word Document. py; fill in the App ID and App Secret of a Facebook app you control (I strongly recommend creating an app just for this purpose) and the Page ID of the Facebook Page you want to scrape at the beginning of the file. 7+), as of now Scrapy is not compatible with Python 3. Scraping Google with Python November 5, 2017 March 28, 2019 Edmund Martin Python , SEO In this post we are going to look at scraping Google search results using Python. A great Python-based solution to extract the text from a PDF is PDFMiner. Here’s what you can do to pull data from any Subreddit on Reddit automatically. In this chapter, you will learn about several modules that make it easy to scrape web pages in Python. python documentation: Web scraping with Python. I also recorded this tutorial in a screencast so if you prefer to watch me do this step by step in a video please go ahead and watch it below. Python is largely considered the go-to language for web-scraping, the reason being the batteries-included nature of Python. so what do you he/she wants to print. Jose Portilla's Data Science and ML Bootcamp — Course on Udemy. Need help? Post your question and get tips & solutions from a community of 432,176 IT Pros & Developers. Here is an example of Scraping the web in Python:. However, if for some reason. Also, the data collected by scraping Nasdaq news website by the financial organisations to predict the stock prices or predict the market trend for generating optimised investment plans. >>> Python Software Foundation. Sometimes it would be great to obtain some data from them and preserve the structure while we’re at it. It is available for Python 2. This chapter will give you an in-depth idea of web scraping, its comparison with web cr. 24 March 2019 A Python web scraping framework for intelligent use cases. All the job is carried out by a piece of code which is called a "scraper". Why do you need to scrape Twitter data? The simple reason is that it provides limited data (140 characters, that has now increased to 280), that is easy to extract once you have a Twitter developer account. Put the code on the following page into a new python file. Web Scraping with Python Code Samples. This Python Scrapy tutorial will teach you how to use Scrapy to build web crawlers and web spiders. Libraries required for web scraping. The websites chosen by the rest of the cohort ranged from e-commerce to news websites showing the different. A DataFrame can hold data and be easily manipulated. >>> Python Software Foundation. Beautiful Soup 3. Tags: BeautifulSoup, click, JAWS, lxml, Python, Requests, Web scraping, XQilla, XQuery. Web scraping is a method of extracting and restructuring information from web pages. Use Cases. In this chapter, you will learn about several modules that make it easy to scrape web pages in Python. Further Readings. Web scraping is a common and effective way of collecting data for projects and for work. Web scraping. In this article I want to demonstrate how easy it is to build a simple email crawler in Python. First time using Scrapy? Get Scrapy at a glance. Coroutines and Tasks. There are plenty of other things to talk about when scraping, such as specifics on how to grab the data from a particular site, which Python libraries to use and how to use them, how to write code that would scrape the data in a daily job, where exactly to look as to how to get the data from random sites, etc. In this example we write a HTML scraper using the Python parsing library BeautifulSoup. We'll rely on two common Python packages to do the heavy lifting, Requests and Beautiful Soup. This tutorial is part of our comprehensive online course, Scrapy, Powerful Web Scraping & Crawling with Python - get 90% OFF using this coupon. Since I wanted to keep the intro fairly simple, I didn't cover storing the data. It was a little hard to work through some of the “issues”, but I had some great help from @DataJunkie on twitter. Web Scraping (also known as Screen Scraping, Web Data Extraction, Web Harvesting etc. Although these files can be viewed directly in your browser in Github, some formatting changes and oddities may occur. 108 web scraping python jobs available. Today, we are going to learn about Scrapy; what Scrapy is overall, Scrapy versus other Python-based web scraping tools, why you should use it and when it makes sense to use some other tools, pros and cons of Scrapy, and that would be it. There are number of ways to access a web page and scrap its data. Scraping large pdf tables which span accross multiple pages | BlogoSfera - August 6, 2013 […] have encountered several python libraries like pdftables but they are not easy to use for non-python developer like me (I was not even able to run these […]. This is a great exercise for web scraping beginners who are looking to understand how to web scrape. This tutorial is part of our comprehensive online course, Scrapy, Powerful Web Scraping & Crawling with Python – get 90% OFF using this coupon. I have made a simple and straight forward yelp data scraping script in python that can scrape data from yelp website. Cookies, redirections, and SSL are handled automatically. How to scrape a website using Python + Scrapy in 5 simple steps August 18, 2016 February 27, 2018 Kevin Jacobs Data Science In this Python Scrapy tutorial, you will learn how to write a simple webscraper in Python using the Scrapy framework. For this example, we'll be scraping Uber's Angel List profile. Scrapy is one of the most popular and powerful Python scraping libraries; it takes a "batteries included" approach to scraping, meaning that it handles a lot of the common functionality that all scrapers need so developers don't have to reinvent the wheel each time. Let's check out how to scrape websites with python and beautifulsoup. I used selenium python bindings for using selenium web dirver. Python Web Scraping Tutorial - Web scraping, also called web data mining or web harvesting, is the process of constructing an agent which can extract, parse, download and organize useful info. Learn more. The recipe should be easily adaptable to other sites. How to scrape text from webpage using beautifulsoup python? I recently used BeautifulSoup in Python to scrape a large data set of website URLs and the following tutorial helped me through it:. Web scraper crawls listing type data from multiple pages. js that you think is helpful or just have questions or thoughts you want to share, be sure to let us know via the comments below. The server responds to the request by returning the HTML content of the webpage. Scraping Premier League Football Data with Python We’ve already seen in previous scraping articles how we can identify parts on a web page and scrape them into a dataframe. Web scraping can be slightly intimidating, so this tutorial will break down the process of how to go about the process. Python Documentation. Coroutines and Tasks. Web scraping is a big field, and you have just finished a brief tour of that field, using Python as you guide. The recipe should be easily adaptable to other sites. No software to download, no Python/php/JS needed. Conclusion. Using the Python programming language, it is possible to "scrape" data from the web in a quick and efficient manner. The explosion of the internet has been a boon for data science enthusiasts. Here is an example of Scraping the web in Python:. My advice below includes what I did for last spring's Computational Journalism class, specifically, the Search-Script-Scrape project, which involved 101-web-scraping exercises in Python. If you are interested in scraping a website, you should definitely read this article. Recently I come across a tool that takes care of many of the issues you usually face while scraping websites. Now, let's use web scraping to crawl and analyze an entire website in less than 50-lines of Python. The code is commented using the # to describe each section. How to screen scrape craigslist using Python and BeautifulSoup you can change the site value to match the site you want to scrape. You can also find all the spiders we explained in this Python Scrapy tutorial on GitHub (Craigslist Scraper). Learn more. This article introduces web scraping in Node. You'll learn how to scrape static web pages, dynamic pages (Ajax loaded content), iframes, get specific HTML elements, how to handle cookies and much more stuff. , HackSpace. html, a single webpage of the PDF pages combined. How to scrape a website using Python + Scrapy in 5 simple steps August 18, 2016 February 27, 2018 Kevin Jacobs Data Science In this Python Scrapy tutorial, you will learn how to write a simple webscraper in Python using the Scrapy framework. Web page source code is often not logical and consistent (major browsers are incredibly good at overlooking this, but python and your own code probably aren't). BeautifulSoup is an excellent tool for parsing HTML code and grabbing exactly the. If you're wondering where to begin your Python journey, click the button below and we'll give you some guidance: Start Your Python Journey ». I decided to write a short post about how I use Python and XPath to extract web content. I did some research back when I first started tinkering with twitter and landed on the Twython package. An Intro to Web Scraping with Python Published on Nov 26, 2014 by Zaynaib Giwa Update: There is now a video edition of this blog post thanks to the kind folks over at Webucator Check it out!. See the scraper code below that creates a loop to run through the 1st page, scrape it for the h2 and li items in the html and append it to the csv. How to scrape text from webpage using beautifulsoup python? I recently used BeautifulSoup in Python to scrape a large data set of website URLs and the following tutorial helped me through it:. Web scraping is a common and effective way of collecting data for projects and for work. The module BeautifulSoup is designed for web scraping. Why do you need to scrape Twitter? I will address the elephant in the room right away, and answer the most important question at this point. Here’s what you can do to pull data from any Subreddit on Reddit automatically. py -o output. $ pip install requests $ pip install lxml $ pip install cssselect $ touch scraper. As always, if you find anything related to web scraping with Node. The Python programming language is widely used in the data science community, and therefore has an ecosystem of modules and tools that you can use in your own projects. Below is Few Tools we provide. Python is largely considered the go-to language for web-scraping, the reason being the batteries-included nature of Python. Skip to content. Python versions 2. Written with a data science audience in mind, the book explores both scraping and the larger context of web technologies in which it. Sometimes he/she can just be shown the path to the right data or simply it is a choice to find interesting data. The BeautifulSoup module can handle HTML and XML. Web-Scraping is the easiest way to gather data from this huge virtual world of Internet. Many web applications require the user to fill out a login form. Whether you are a data scientist, engineer, or anybody who analyzes large amounts of datasets, the ability to scrape data from the web is a useful skill to have. By writing a simple automated program, you can query web servers, request data, and parse it to extract the information you need. $ python scraper. In searching for some information on web-scrapers, I found a great presentation given at Pycon in 2010 by Asheesh Laroia. Part II explores a variety of more specific tools and applications to fit any web scraping scenario you’re likely to encounter. Python Documentation. For the last paper I wrote, I needed to put my data set together from a variety of sources from the. Python makes experimenting and debugging a breeze, and because I could run my scraper from the command line, or from IDLE (the Python IDE), finding the slow parts didn't take long. First web scraper¶. We are going to use Python as our scraping language, together with a simple and powerful library, BeautifulSoup. Automate your tasks with our Cloud Scraper. We'll look at how to query the Harvard Art Museums API to get metadata about the most popular images in their collections and exhibits, use the International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF) Image API to manipulate the image files, and use the Omeka API to push information into our. Turn websites into data with the world's leading web scraping services & tools from the creators of Scrapy. With Python, you can create a simple scraping script in about 15 minutes and in under 100 lines of code. September 17, 2017 | 14 Minute Read I just recently joined an AI hackathon where we took on the challenging task of trying to recognize fake news. As we know, Python is an open source programming language. So, it was simple downloading all the images: Breakdown. In this post, I'll cover the basics of writing the scraped data to a flat file and then take things a bit further from there. Using the Beautifulsoup HTML Parser on Github. This is an opinionated. Greetings, Earthling! Welcome to The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Python. There are times when your programs need to access the Web without worrying about the details of the mark-up. Since we will be using Python scripts to extract data from the Facebook page then we need to install Python interpreter to execute them. This will get data from a Yahoo Finance page about stock options. How to speed up your python web scraper by using multiprocessing In earlier posts, here and here I discussed how to write a scraper and make it secure and foolproof. Hello everyone! I hope you are doing well. To begin, we need a HTML parser. Extracting data from websites however, can be tedious, especially if you need to repeatedly retrieve data in the same format everyday. You can use it to create an API for a site that doesn’t have one, perform periodic data exports, etc. Python Scrapy Tutorial Topics:. The actual implementation of this included a few other bits: Support for scraping more than one site – e. QuickCode is the new name for the original ScraperWiki product. For our script we will print out the titles and website descriptions of the results page. Python Scrapy Tutorial Topics:. As was pointed out in the comments on HN, there are many cases where scraping data may be considered illegal, or open you to the possibility of being sued. OOP concepts are covered in details and explained with examples in the tutorial series. I m assuming that you have Python installed (required 2. This workshop will introduce basic techniques for web scraping using the popular Python libraries BeautifulSoup and Requests. Another handy tool is the ScraperWiki toolset and library. Web Scraping¶ Web sites are written using HTML, which means that each web page is a structured document. Most code for the second edition is contained in Jupyter notebooks. Web Scraping with Python Code Samples. By Seppe vanden Broucke and Bart Baesens Sponsored Post. 6+ and Python 3. Web scraping using Python in Windows was tough. You can also find all the spiders we explained in this Python Scrapy tutorial on GitHub (Craigslist Scraper). The server responds to the request by returning the HTML content of the webpage. First time using Scrapy? Get Scrapy at a glance. Why only 5 libraries? There are dozens of packages for web scraping out there… but you only need a handful to be able to scrape almost any site. ever used XML or httr in R or urllib2 in Python, you’ve probably encountered the situation where the source code you’ve scraped for a website doesn’t contain all the information you see in your browser. If you intend to work on multiple Python projects, or you need a way to easily bundle projects with all associated libraries, or you're worried about potential conflicts between installed libraries, you can install a Python virtual environment to keep everything separated and easy to manage. There are three preparatory steps for scraping web pages via Python with HTML tables for SQL Server tables. All beginners welcome Final Co. This is a feature included with ScrapeBox, and is also compatible with our Automator Plugin. We are going to use Python as our scraping language, together with a simple and powerful library, BeautifulSoup. Wikipedia Table data Scraping with Python and BeautifulSoupThis article shows you another way to use BeautifulSoup to scrape Wikipedia table data. Everything will be accompanied by python snippets, so that you can start straight away. Since I wanted to keep the intro fairly simple, I didn't cover storing the data. " HTML parsing is easy in Python, especially with help of the BeautifulSoup library. Web Scraping is a useful technique to convert unstructured data on the web to structured data BeautifulSoup is an efficient library available in Python to perform web scraping other than urllib A basic knowledge of HTML and HTML tags is necessary to do web scraping in Python. All the job is carried out by a piece of code which is called a "scraper". Python is largely considered the go-to language for web-scraping, the reason being the batteries-included nature of Python. For this task, we will use a third-party HTTP library for python requests. It is a Python package for parsing HTML and XML documents and extract data from them. This will make for easy scraping. A great Python-based solution to extract the text from a PDF is PDFMiner. Anyway I am also a beginner for Python and so comments and suggestions are highly appreciated. The parse method will be called on each URL in the start_urls array. Python high memory usage with BeautifulSoup; Screen scraping images (ie. Scrapy is a Python framework for web scraping that provides a complete package for developers without worrying about maintaining code. Tag: web scraping Extract links from webpage (BeautifulSoup) Web scraping is the technique to extract data from a website. Scrapy is one of the most popular and powerful Python scraping libraries; it takes a “batteries included” approach to scraping, meaning that it handles a lot of the common functionality that all scrapers need so developers don’t have to reinvent the wheel each time. Sometimes you have to scrape data from a webpage yourself. Once we have accessed the HTML content, we are left with the task of parsing. Web sites don't always provide their data in comfortable formats such as CSV or JSON. Eugene Choi Follow Co-Founder / Software Engineer at Altitude. Install python above 3. Install Python; this tip shows screen shots for step-by-step guidelines on how to install Python for all users on a server. Python Scrapy tutorial covers the fundamental of Scrapy. We know there are generally multiple expiration dates per symbol. The difference between string and text is that string produces a NavigableString object, and text is just typical unicode text. Selenium Tutorial: Web Scraping with Selenium and Python February 21, 2015 Marina Mele Imagine what would you do if you could automate all the repetitive and boring activities you perform using internet, like checking every day the first results of Google for a given keyword, or download a bunch of files from different websites. Web scraping is a technique in data extraction where you pull information from websites. Here's how you can use a simple, but super powerful, multi-threaded scraper to download all images from a website using Python and the Scrapy library. We're going to use the BeautifulSoup library to build a simple web scraper for Github. Please note that several websites discourage using a crawler to access information What Is Web Scraping?. It is better to install pip according to system OS, and then try to follow the standard way for installing Scrapy. In this Nylon Calculus 101 post, Savvas Tjortjoglou introduces web scraping with Python to grab data for all draftees from the 1966 to 2014 NBA drafts. How to scrape a website that requires login with Python I’ve recently had to perform some web scraping from a site that required login. For those who missed out on that article, here’s the link. By Kartik Singhal. It is written in pure Python. Whether you use the scraper for yourself or not, it still has some value for those who're just starting out. In this article, we will go through an easy example of how to automate downloading hundreds of files from the New York MTA. Unfortunately this isn't always available and you sometimes have to fall back to web scraping. But it is very easy and there is a lot of detailed instructions online incase you can't. If you're wondering where to begin your Python journey, click the button below and we'll give you some guidance: Start Your Python Journey ». It can be done manually by copy and pasting data from a website. Learn Python - Best Python Courses Python tutorials submitted and ranked by Python developers with the best rising to the top. Note that this is not an introductory. In this video we will look at web scraping using Python and the BeautifulSoup library. Amazon Scraping and Reprice tools 2. Web Scraping Practice Exercises. At Real Python you can learn all things Python from the ground up. Our automated web data scraping service is the easiest and most cost effective way to collect the data you require from any web site, or group of sites. Send a HTTP request to the URL of the webpage you want to access. Step 1:Install Python 2. In this tutorial, we will talk about Python web scraping and how to scrape web pages using multiple libraries such as Beautiful Soup, Selenium, and some other magic tools like PhantomJS. For those who missed out on that article, here’s the link. parser — Simple HTML and XHTML parser¶ Source code: Lib/html/parser. From system administrators to database administrators to data scientists and software developers, being able to scrape the web gives you an edge over others. edu Dec 5th, 2017 C. $ pip install requests $ pip install lxml $ pip install cssselect $ touch scraper. Here's how you can use a simple, but super powerful, multi-threaded scraper to download all images from a website using Python and the Scrapy library. Wednesday, December 17, 2014. I thought this might be a valuable resource for R users who are looking for ways to gather data from user-unfriendly websites. With Python, you can create a simple scraping script in about 15 minutes and in under 100 lines of code. Web scraping can be slightly intimidating, so this tutorial will break down the process of how to go about the process. Easiest way to get started with Data Science. Getting Started. Scraping for Craft Beers 17 Jan 2017. In this python web scraping tutorial, you'll get a step-by-step guide on how to build a web scraper in Python. Web page source code is often not logical and consistent (major browsers are incredibly good at overlooking this, but python and your own code probably aren't). This web scraping tutorial in Python 3 will show you…. Scrapy is a Python framework for web scraping that provides a complete package for developers without worrying about maintaining code. Installing pip in windows and using it to install packages useful for web scraping was the hardest part of all. Course Outline. If you want to scrape data at a large scale, you. It makes scraping a quick and fun process! Scrapy, like most Python. As always, if you find anything related to web scraping with Node. In Automate the Boring Stuff with Python, you'll learn how to use Python to write programs that do in minutes what would take you hours to do by hand-no prior programming experience required. There are many reasons and use cases why you would want to scrape data. The tools listed here are primarily for Python, but equivalent versions of these libraries exist in other languages — just search around! Who's a celebrity, exactly?. Web scraping is defined as: a tool for turning the unstructured data on the web into machine readable, structured data which is ready for analysis. Tag: python,xpath,web-scraping,scrapy,scrapy-spider. Tweets are extremely useful for gathering opinions of thousands of people on a particular topic over time. Please note that several websites discourage using a crawler to access information What Is Web Scraping?. Getting Started. It uses Twisted, a Python networking engine, and lxml, a Python XML + HTML parser. In this Python Programming Tutorial, we will be learning how to scrape websites using the BeautifulSoup library. Enter a subreddit (exactly how it appears in URL, ie: showerthoughts) 2. Jan 22, 2015. For this example, we'll be scraping Uber's Angel List profile. This prompted me to turn Anna‘s basic Twitter scraper into a library. 7 through a Jupyter Notebook on Anaconda and the Python libraries urllib , BeautifulSoup and Pandas. Python is largely considered the go-to language for web-scraping, the reason being the batteries-included nature of Python. com) that requires you to fill out a form. Here I am going to discuss how to scrape yelp data for lead generation and email marketing. If programming is magic then web scraping is surely a form of wizardry. It is simple and powerful, with lots of features and possible extensions. For this task, we will use a third-party HTTP library for python requests. Scraping the web in Python. It sounds like using the wikipedia database dumps are the better way to go here, but if you want to do web scraping in python you could look into: requests, for web scraping. Hello everyone! I hope you are doing well. [code]import bs4 import requests import pandas as pd def list_attribute(container. csv containing the data should produced in the root folder. Choose the amount of posts you want. com are providing amazon scraping tools without IP blocked and Banned. We will be using the Open Library site. Before you begin scraping data from any website, ensure to study the HTML markup/ content of the website to determine the location of the data you want. This workshop is relatively informal, example-oriented, and hands-on. Install python above 3. Classpert - Python - A collection of free and paid Python online courses, from a wide range of providers. Everything will be accompanied by python snippets, so that you can start straight away. Who is this for: Scrapy is a web scraping library for Python developers looking to build scalable web crawlers. Join 575,000 other learners and get started learning Python for data science today! Welcome. Conclusion. Today, we are going to learn about Scrapy; what Scrapy is overall, Scrapy versus other Python-based web scraping tools, why you should use it and when it makes sense to use some other tools, pros and cons of Scrapy, and that would be it. Hands-On Web Scraping with Python: Perform advanced scraping operations using various Python libraries and tools such as Selenium, Regex, and others. not available via free API). You can also find all the spiders we explained in this Python Scrapy tutorial on GitHub (Craigslist Scraper). Pandas has a neat concept known as a DataFrame. Put the code on the following page into a new python file. When she's not scraping the web, you can follow her thoughts and activities via Twitter (@kjam). Web scraping softwares are usede to access the World Wide Web directly using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or through a web browser. So this is the process of how you can scrape e-commerce websites and get actionable insights from the data using python and some visualization. Why only 5 libraries? There are dozens of packages for web scraping out there… but you only need a handful to be able to scrape almost any site. Using a simple language like Python, you can crawl the information out of complex websites using simple programming. This should be enough for you to start going after other reasonably simple targets. For Mac users, Python is pre-installed in OS X. On the other hand, it is not “Python intermixed with HTML” in the way that PHP is often intermixed with HTML. Web Scraping Practice Exercises. Python 3 now ships with PIP built in. In this article, we will go through an easy example of how to automate downloading hundreds of files from the New York MTA. There are number of ways to access a web page and scrap its data. Implementation consists of the steps discussed in the earlier section. APIs are not always available. We show you how to parse a web page into a data file (csv) using a Python package called BeautifulSoup. Below sample python code is about how to scrape pdf annual reports from Walt Disney | Scrape. Python implementation for scraping eBay. Web scraping is an automated, programmatic process through which data can be constantly 'scraped' off webpages. How to scrape Reddit In [1]: from. Lets discuss where we should need the web scraping in real world. Keeping Libraries Straight with Virtual Environments. Scrapy is a Python framework for web scraping that provides a complete package for developers without worrying about maintaining code. Web Scraping Job Posts from Glassdoor Using Python and LXML. It is currently maintained by Scrapinghub Ltd. Python Scrapy Tutorial Topics:. How To Web Scrape Wikipedia Using Python, Urllib, Beautiful Soup and Pandas In this tutorial we will use a technique called web scraping to extract data from a website. So in order to keep ourselves updated with modern day technologies, we are also using python for this course as a programming language. It uses Twisted, a Python networking engine, and lxml, a Python XML + HTML parser. There are also good news about requests library. If you want to scrape data at a large scale, you. In particular, today I will emphasize how to scrape https website with proxies. In this tutorial, we're going to talk more about scraping what you want, specifically with a table example, as well as scraping XML documents. In order to show the difference between the synchronous and the asynchronous counterpart, we will implement both the codes and try to see the execution time difference.